Time Line of Israel's History

Israel History as a timeline

The Israel File

A Time Line of Israel

A Time Line of Israel

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c. 17th centuryThe Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob - patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God - settle in the Land of Israel. Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt
c. 13th centuryExodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert. Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai.
13th-12th C.Israelites settle the Land of Israel
c. 1020Jewish Monarchy established; Saul, first king
c. 1000Jerusalem made capital of David's kingdom
c. 960First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon
c. 930Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel
722-720Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).
586Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled to Babylonia
538-515Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt
332Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule
166-160Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of Temple
142-129Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
129-63Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.
63Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey.
63 BCE-313 CE ROMAN RULE, 376 yrs. Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel;
(CE - Common Era)
37 BCE – 4 CETemple in Jerusalem refurbished
c 20-33Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth
66Jewish revolt against the Romans
70Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple.
73Last stand of Jews at Masada.
132-135Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.
c. 210Codification of Jewish oral law, Mishnah, completed.
313-636BYZANTINE RULE, 323 yrs
c. 390Commentary on the Mishnah, the Jerusalem Talmud, completed.
614Persian invasion
636-1099ARAB RULE, 463 yrs
691On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik
1099-1291CRUSADER DOMINATION; (Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem), 192 yrs
1291-1516MAMLUK RULE, 225 yrs
1517-1917OTTOMAN RULE, 400 yrs
1564Code of Jewish law, Shulhan Arukh, published.
1860First neighborhood, Mishkenot Sha'ananim, built outside Jerusalem's walls.
1882-1903First Aliya (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia.
1897First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded.
1904-14Second Aliya, mainly from Russia and Poland.
1909First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, founded.
1917British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine", the Balfour Declaration
1917400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest
1918-48BRITISH RULE – 30 years
1919-23Third Aliya, mainly from Russia
Histadrut (Jewish labor federation) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.
1920Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (yishuv) to conduct its affairs.
1921First moshav, Nahalal, founded.
Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations;
Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home.
1922Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-a-vis Mandate authorities set up.
1924Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.
1924-32Fourth Aliya, mainly from Poland.
1925Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mt. Scopus.
1929Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants.
1931Etzel, (Irgun) Jewish underground organization, founded.
1933-39Fifth Aliya, mainly from Germany.
1936-39Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants.
1939Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper. 100,000 maximum.
1939-45World War II; Holocaust in Europe. British Navy curtails emigration from Europe.
1941Lehi underground movement formed; Palmach- strike force of Haganah, set up.
1944Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.
1947UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land. Arabs rejected it.
State of Israel proclaimed (14 May). 600,000 Jews in the land.
End of British Mandate (14 May)
Israel invaded by five Arab states (15 May)
War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949)
1948Israel Defense Forces (IDF) established
Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon.
Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule.
First Knesset (parliament) elected.
1949Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.
1948-52Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries.
1956Sinai Campaign against Nasser, with England and France, Pres. Eisenhower defeated it.
1962Adolf Eichmann tried and executed in Israel for his key part in the Holocaust.
1964National Water Carrier completed, bringing water from Lake Kinneret in the north to the semi-arid south.
1967Six-Day War, Jerusalem reunited.
1968-70Egypt's War of Attrition against Israel
1973Yom Kippur War
1975Israel becomes an associate member of the European Common Market.
1977Likud forms government after Knesset elections, end of 30 years of Labor rule. Visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.
1978Camp David Accords & framework for comprehensive peace in Middle East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.
Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed.
1979Prime Minister Menachem Begin and President Anwar Sadat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
1981Israel Air Force destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor just before it is to become operative. Israel's three-stage withdrawal from Sinai completed.
1982Operation Peace for Galilee removes PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) terrorists from Lebanon.
1984National unity government (Likud & Labor) formed after elections. Operation Moses, Immigration of Jews from Ethiopia. Itzhak Shamir and Shimon Peres alternate PM.
1985Free Trade Agreement signed with United States.
1987Widespread violence (intifada) starts in Israeli-administered areas.
1988Likud government in power following elections, Itzhak Shamir PM. Four-point peace initiative proposed by Israel.
1989Start of mass immigration of Jews from former Soviet Union.
1991Israel attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles during Gulf war. Middle East peace conference convened in Madrid;
1991Operation Solomon, airlift of Jews from Ethiopia. President Bush major assistance. Diplomatic relations established with China and India.
1992New government headed by Yitzhak Rabin of Labor party.
1993Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements for the Palestinians signed by Israel and PLO, as representative of the Palestinian people. Implementation of Palestinian self-government in Gaza Strip and Jericho area. Full diplomatic relations with the Holy See. Morocco and Tunisia interest offices set up. Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed.
1994Rabin, Peres, Arafat awarded Nobel Peace Prize. Broadened Palestinian self-government implemented in West Bank and Gaza Strip; Palestinian Council elected. Prime Minister Rabin assassinated at peace rally.
1995Shimon Peres becomes prime minister. Fundamentalist Arab terrorism against Israel escalates. Operation Grapes of Wrath, retaliation for Hezbollah terrorists' attacks on northern Israel. Trade representation offices set up in Oman and Qatar. Likud forms government after Knesset elections. Benjamin Netanyahu becomes prime minister.
1996Omani trade representation office opened in Tel Aviv.
1997Hebron Protocol signed by Israel and the PA.
1998Israel celebrates its 50th anniversary.
2000Arafat rejects President Clinton’s effort to achieve peace after generous offer by PM Barak. Arafat PA starts intensive terrorism against Israeli civilians
Summer 2005Israel evacuates all Jewish communities in Gaza, Palestinian infighting starts; Kassam rockets from Gaza attacks Israel on regular basis.
Jan 2006PM Sharon incapacitated by massive stroke, Olmert takes over as PM. Hamas won election
July 2006Hezbollah war in Lebanon, massive rocket attacks on Israeli civilians in Northern Israel
Original Source, past Israel gov, addition by Matania Ginosar

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Wikipedia article about Israel - A comprehensive article including the history of Israel
Israel - Table of contents at the Jewish Virtual Library

US Library of congress & CIA World Fact Book on Israel
Main article on Israel - US Library of Congress
The Israeli Parliment (the Knesset) - US Library of Congress
Government and Politics of Israel - US Library of Congress
World Facts: Israel

Israel today - beyond the conflict

Virtual Jerusalem
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